Wetzikon–Robenhausen is one of the 111 serial sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, of which are 56 located in Switzerland. The site is located on Pfäffikersee lakeshore in Robenhausen football uniforms design your own, a locality of the municipality of Wetzikon in the Canton of Zürich in Switzerland.

The site is located on Pfäffikersee lake shore in Robenhausen, a locality of the municipality of Wetzikon in the Canton of Zürich in Switzerland. The settlement comprises around 10 hectares (24.71 acres), and the buffer zone including the lake area comprises around 20 hectares (49.42 acres) in all.

The area at the southern end of the Pfäffikersee lake shore has been inhabited for over 10,000 years. Neolithic hunters and collectors built during the European Middle Stone Age at various locations storage bins, and in the Neolithic period several small, permanently inhabited settlements near the shore.

Wetzikon–Robenhausen is situated in the Robenhausen wetland between Seegräben and Kempten covering an area of about 2 square kilometres (1 sq mi). The settlement site is characterized by the excellent preservation of organic remains and evidence of textile production, including textiles and parts of a Neolithic loom. A rare find is a board which was probably a door, attributed to the Pfyn culture. The age of a dugout found in 1943 is not yet released. Back to the middle-European Bronze Age era date numerous individual finds, among them two trailers. Further excavations at Tösstalstrasse provided evidence of a settlement of the Glockenbecher culture. Except for individual finds and Jakob Messikommer’s excavations to the 1900s, the vast protected area is not yet explored in its entire extent.

The remains of the Neolithic settlements in the protected marsh area were discovered by Jakob Messikommer between 1856 and 1858. On occasion of several excavations Messikommer reported the discovery of a dugout of a peculiar form and other artefacts of the equipment of a hunter; he also distinguished two of a peat layer separate segmented layers which Messikommer interpreted as a settlement that was rebuilt, and in fact he was right. Additional individual finds included longbows, hatchets made of stone and stag horn, and ceramics. Messikommer identified, among the organic finds, however 58 different animal species. In another of his excavations Messikommer revealed the remains of woven fabrics, braids and seeds and evidence of the production of butter. Carved wooden knife what is a meat mallet, a trowel and scoops, a yoke of hazel, flail, remains of a garment and one from raffia braided mat were other single finds. Jakob Messikommer’s achievements were honored with a memorial stone and the so-called Messikomer Eich, an oak in the Robenhausen reed.

As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, the settlement is also listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as a Class A object of national importance. Hence, the area is provided as a historical site under federal protection, within the meaning of the Swiss Federal Act on the nature and cultural heritage (German: Bundesgesetz über den Natur- und Heimatschutz NHG) of 1 July 1966. Unauthorised researching and purposeful gathering of findings represent a criminal offense according to Art. 24.


Kate Gilmore (artist)

Kate Gilmore (born 1975) is a fine artist working in and synthesizing multiple mediums, including video, sculpture, photography, and performance. Born in Washington, D.C., Gilmore attended Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, graduating in 1997. Gilmore received her masters of fine arts in 2002 from the School of Visual Arts in New York Gilmore’s work engages with ideas of femininity through her own physicality and critiques of gender and sex. Gilmore currently lives and works in New York City, NY Gilmore has exhibited at the 2010 Whitney Biennial, the Brooklyn Museum, The Indianapolis Museum of Art, White Columns; Contemporary Arts Center (Cincinnati), Artpace, The J. Paul Getty Museum, The Rose Art Museum, and PS1/MoMA Contemporary Art Center.

Challenging herself by engaging in and performing physically demanding actions, Gilmore exaggerates the absurdity of these actions by frequently dressing in overtly feminine attire such as floral-print skirts and colorful high heels. Described as messy and chaotic glasses from bottles, Gilmore’s work gives a contemporary revision on feminine and hardcore performances that started in the 1960’s and 70’s with artists like Marina Abramović and Chris Burden Gilmore’s work explores female identity, struggle fabric shaver electric, and displacement; being the protagonist in her video work, Gilmore “attempts to conquer self-constructed obstacles” Gilmore works with making video pieces and live performances that often showcase herself but she also has pieces in which other women perform the acts like her piece Walk The Walk which is also Gilmore’s first public performance piece. Starting in 2004, Gilmore’s video piece entitled My Love is an Anchor showcases the artist herself beating on a cement filled bucket with her leg stuck inside; hearing her grunts and groans and she attempts to escape, the video ends with no real footage of the artist escaping. Due to her unrelenting nature with her work, Gilmore’s pieces make the viewer feel as though she’s accepted a ridiculous dare

The overarching themes in Gilmore’s work are the traditional social constructs of the feminine and modes – literal and metaphorical – of liberation from those constructs. She engages with these themes through motifs that include physical pain (often apparently futile and demoralizing), sound (exasperated vocalizations and music) goaly gloves, and props (including ramshackle wood constructions, hammers, axes, etc.).

Double mixte des Internationaux de France 1997

Internationaux de France 1997

Double mixte

Grands Chelems 1997

Cet article présente les résultats détaillés du double mixte de l’édition 1997 des Internationaux de France de tennis qui est disputé du 26 mai au . Ce tournoi est le deuxième de la tournée du Grand Chelem.

Rika Hiraki et Mahesh Bhupathi battent Lisa Raymond et Patrick Galbraith en finale de cette édition&nbsp top football shirts;; il s’agit du 1er succès de cette équipe dans les tournois du Grand Chelem.

Les seize têtes de série sont exemptées de premier tour boys football socks.

Capricorn Tower

The Capricorn Tower is a mixed-use 48-floor tower in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and its construction was completed in 2003. The tower has a total structural height of 190 m (623 ft). The first 19 floors are for commercial use, the upper floors for residential use, which comprise four residential units each, with exception of the two-storey penthouses in the 43rd/44th floors. At the 45th floor the pool and the gym can be found. The entrances to the commercial and residential units are separate. The Capricorn Tower is easily reachable by the Dubai Metro, as the station Emirates Towers is built directly in front of it. The building is owned by the Seddiqi family steak mallet, who are the official Rolex dealers in Dubai and are also the owners of the Rolex Tower nearby.

. SkyscraperPage. 

Rob Halford

Rob Halford (født Robert John Arthur Halford 25. august 1951 i Birmingham) er en engelsk vokalist og låtskriver.

Halford er best kjent som vokalist i heavy metal-bandet Judas Priest, en av de store pionerene innen heavy metal-sjangeren. Han er en av de få kjente åpne homofile heavy metal-musikerne. Halford har ofte blitt omtalt som «heavy metal-gud» p.g meat tenderizer solution.a. hans store innflytelse på rock og heavy metal. Han er kjent for sin unike bruk av vokal på fire og en halv oktav, og evnen til å nå ekstremt høye toner. Gode eksempler er i låtene «Painkiller», «Victim Of Changes», «Dreamer Deceiver», «A Touch Of Evil», «Blood Red Skies», «Screaming For Vengeance» (alle med Judas Priest) og «Sad Wings» (fra solo-konsertalbumet «Live Insurrection»).

Han er også kjent for å ha introdusert klesstilen med nagler og lær i musikksjangeren, noe han ble inspirert til av homsemiljøet i Soho i London. Endel av klærne ble kjøpt i butikken Mr. S, og etter hvert fikk han spesiallaget klærne.

Etter Judas Priest ga ut det suksessrike albumet Painkiller og dro på en 1991-turné, forlot Rob Halford bandet. Rykter om at bandet hadde interne konflikter og at Halford muligens var homofil, begynte å spre seg samme året. Halford startet så et groove/heavy metal-band ved navn Fight sommeren 1993 sammen med Judas Priest-trommeslageren Scott Travis lint remover electric. Fight ga ut to studioalbum og splittet to år senere, i 1995. I 1999 startet Halford et nytt heavy metal-band ved navn Halford.

Sangeren Tim «Ripper» Owens tok over for Rob Halford som vokalist i Judas Priest i 1996, men da Halford returnerte i 2003, måtte Tim Owens vike unna, og ble med i Iced Earth, som nylig hadde mistet sin hovedvokalist.

I 2002 spilte Rob Halford en rolle som en homofil pornosjappeekspeditør i filmen Spun. Han spilte også rollen som «The Baron» i spillet Brütal Legend med blant annet Ozzy Osbourne, Jack Black og Lemmy.

Rob Halford · Glenn Tipton · Ian Hill · Scott Travis · Richie Faulkner

Al Atkins · Tim Owens · Ernie Chataway · John Perry · K.K. Downing&nbsp tenderize beef;· John Partridge · John Ellis · Alan Moore · Chris Campbell · John Hinch · Les Binks · Dave Holland · Bruno Stapenhill · Simon Phillips

Rocka Rolla · Sad Wings of Destiny · Sin After Sin · Stained Class · Killing Machine · British Steel · Point of Entry · Screaming for Vengeance · Defenders of the Faith · Turbo · Ram It Down · Painkiller · Jugulator · Demolition · Angel of Retribution · Nostradamus

Unleashed in the East · Priest. what is a fabric shaver..Live! · ’98 Live Meltdown · Live in London · A Touch of Evil: Live

The Best of Judas Priest · Hero, Hero · The Collection · Metal Works ’73-’93 · Prisoners of Pain · The Best of Judas Priest: Living After Midnight · Genocide · Metalogy · The Essential Judas Priest

Judas Priest Live · Fuel For Fire · Priest…Live! · Dream Deceivers · Painkiller · Metal Works 73 • 93 Video · British Steel · Live in London · Electric Eye · Rising in the East · Live Vengeance ’82

· · · · · · · · ·

British Rail Class 221

The Class 221 Super Voyager is a class of diesel-electric multiple-unit express trains built in Bruges, Belgium, by Bombardier Transportation in 2001/02.

The Class 221 are similar to the Class 220 Voyager units, but were built with a tilting mechanism enabling up to six degrees of tilt to allow higher speeds on curved tracks, most have five coaches, and they have a different bogie design. They have a maximum speed of 125 mph (200 km/h).

Currently these trains are divided between two operators, Virgin Trains (West Coast) (20 sets) and CrossCountry (23 sets). The sets operated by CrossCountry have now had their tilt function disabled to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs.

The Class 221s were produced as 5- or 4-coach sets. Each coach is equipped with a Cummins QSK19 diesel engine producing 560 kW (750 hp) at 1,800 rpm, driving an electrical generator which powers two motors, each driving one (inner) axle per bogie via a cardan shaft and final drive. 1,200 miles (1,900 km) can be travelled between refuellings. The coach bodies, the engines and most of the equipment of the Class 221s are the same as the Class 220s, but the bogies are very different: the Class 220 Voyager B5000 bogies have inside-frames which expose the whole of the wheel faces, while the Class 221 SuperVoyager Y36 bogies have a more traditional outside-framed bogie. Unlike the Class 220s, the Class 221s were built with a hydraulic-actuated tilting system to run at high speed around bends, though this has now been removed from the 23 sets operated by CrossCountry.

Each coach weighs between 55 and 57 tonnes, with a total train weight of 281.9 tonnes for a 5-car set (227 tonnes for a 4-car set). The trains have air-operated (pneumatic) and rheostatic brakes, with an emergency stopping distance of 350m at 60 mph (97 km/h).

Class 221 units do not have automatic sanding equipment, and instead have “one-shot” sanders which activate when all of the following conditions are met:

As it was necessary to take the train out of service for refill following the deployment of sand, Bombardier fitted a second sand bottle, allowing two uses before the train would need to be withdrawn from service. The Virgin Trains fleet was modified between December 2008 and March 2009; the CrossCountry fleet between February and June 2011.

All Class 221 units are maintained at the dedicated Central Rivers TMD near Burton-on-Trent.

As part of a franchise commitment to replace all of the Mark 2 and High Speed Train sets waterproof case for 4s, Virgin CrossCountry ordered 40 five-carriage sets. In addition four four-carriage sets were ordered to replace High Speed Trains on Virgin Trains’ North Wales Coast Line services to Holyhead. However all entered service with Virgin CrossCountry.

In November 2010, Virgin Trains reformed its three four-car sets into two five-car sets and a residual spare two-car set by inserting the two intermediate (non-driving) cars from 221144 into 221142 and 221143, giving 20 five-car sets (and two spare driving cars) football jerseys for boys. This was aimed at providing more flexibility and consistency in operating Birmingham-Scotland and London-North Wales services.

All vehicles are air-conditioned and fitted with Wifi provided by T-Mobile. Hot spots the at-seat audio entertainment system is still present however it has now been disabled since the WiFi hot spots were introduced. Power sockets are also available for laptop computers and mobile-phone charging. First-class accommodation has 2+1 seating, standard class 2+2 seating. Virgin Trains’ units are fitted with CCTV. These trains, unlike the older trains they replaced, have electronic information display boards in the exterior walls showing the train number, the time, the coach, the train’s destination and the next station. This is also a feature of the Class 220 and Class 222 high speed DEMUs (The Class 390 trains also have such electronic information display boards, but in the doors).

The trains have been criticised for providing insufficient space for luggage and bicycles deer meat tenderizer. Also, because the units are designed to tilt, the carriages have a tapered profile that narrows towards roof level, resulting in a less spacious interior than the conventional carriages they replaced.

The formation and capacity of each unit depends on the operator.

All units are owned by Voyager Leasing, a consortium of Lloyds Banking Group and Angel Trains. They are leased to the train operating companies.

On their introduction in 2002, Virgin Trains was the operator of all Class 221s, which it used on CrossCountry and West Coast Main Line services as well as on the North Wales Coast line.

With the decision to transfer those CrossCountry services that operated via the West Coast Main Line to the InterCity West Coast franchise at the same time as the former franchise was relet, on 11 November 2007 the fleet was split. Virgin West Coast were allocated 221101-221118 and 221142-221144 while CrossCountry gained 221119-221141. However while CrossCountry overhauled five High Speed Train sets, 221114-221118 were subleased for a 12-month period.

CrossCountry’s Class 221s operate alongside 220s on the routes inherited from Virgin CrossCountry. Since these routes are not cleared for tilting operation (with the exception of Wolverhampton to Stockport), in 2008 the tilting equipment was locked out of use and shortly afterwards was isolated altogether, replacing the hydraulic rams with fixed tie-bars. This change was made to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs.

Virgin Trains (West Coast) uses the Class 221 units primarily from London Euston to Scotland via Birmingham New Street (despite the route being electrified throughout) and from London Euston to Chester and North Wales. They are also used by a few London Euston to West Midland services.

The trains to and from Scotland often operate as double units and alternate between Glasgow Central and Edinburgh Waverley (in turn alternating with TransPennine Express trains to and from Manchester Airport). When longer trains are needed for some of the busier services, a Pendolino will run through from and to London Euston, and the Super Voyager then fills in for it on the London to West Midlands route.

The trains on the North Wales route sometimes work in pairs between London Euston and Chester and terminate variously at Chester, Holyhead, Bangor or Wrexham.

Units have been stopped due to waves breaking over the sea wall at Dawlish in storm conditions, inundating the resistor banks and causing the control software to shut down the whole train. This problem was fixed by a software upgrade to the control software.

On 8 December 2005, 221125 suffered an exhaust fire at Starcross. Other members of the Voyager class suffered similar fires in the 2005-2006 period due to an incorrectly performed engine overhaul.

On 25 September 2006, 221136 collided with a car on the track at Moor Lane, Copmanthorpe, North Yorkshire. The 14:25 Plymouth to Edinburgh was decelerating on its approach to York station at 9pm when it collided with the car, which had crashed through a fence on to the line. Despite being derailed in the 100 mph crash, the train remained upright. Nobody on board was injured.

On 4 July 2009, 221112 was involved in a collision between with a set of freight train container doors, Eden Valley Loop, Penrith. At 16:27, Virgin Trains (1M86) service from Edinburgh to Birmingham New Street passed service 4M16, a container freight train which was in the Eden Valley Loop. The train struck one or both open doors of wagons 12 and or 13 of the container train. The crew of the service water bottle glass, heard the impacts and stopped to report the damage to their control at 16:28. The train suffered damage to all cars consisting of scratching to bodywork, in particular doors, as well as severe damage to one door step. The Super Voyager was one of three trains to be damaged by the container doors,also involved was a Class 390 and a Class 185.

CrossCountry 221131 derailed between Arbroath and Montrose on 4 November 2012 blocking another line. The police and various operators set up a £25,000 reward after it was believed that the train hit something deliberately placed on the track.

On 20 November 2013 a Virgin Super Voyager overran the platform and ran into the buffers at Chester. One passenger was taken to hospital. The RAIB report concluded that this was due to exceptionally low adhesion between wheels and rails, combined with train’s sanding system being inadequate. The report recommended that the sanding equipment on the class be upgraded.

Some of the Virgin-operated Class 221 SuperVoyagers were named after famous voyagers, some fictional and some real, as follows:

† – Refers to CrossCountry units.
^ – Refers to 4 coach units.
‡ – Refers to 4 coach units converted to 5 cars.
§ – Refers to stored & disbanded units.

In 2014, CrossCountry set 220007 suffered a fire seriously damaging coach C. As a quick fix, CrossCountry decided to remove a coach from unit 221135, and place this vehicle within 220007. There is a noticeable difference between the vehicles due to the different sort of bogies used on Class 220 and Class 221 units. In February 2015 both 220007 and 221135 were returned to their original formations.

Cookin’ with the Miles Davis Quintet

Cookin’ with the Miles Davis Quintet – album, który został nagrany przez Milesa Davisa i jego Kwintet w październiku 1956 r. i wydany przez firmę nagraniową Prestige w 1957 r.

Grupa Miles Davis Quintet weszła w świat jazzu niezwykle mocno i efektownie, wspaniałym występem 17 lipca na Newport Jazz Festival w 1955 r best meat tenderizer marinade.

W maju (był to tylko początek w prywatnym domu Rudy’ego Van Geldera) i październiku 1956 r. zespół wszedł do studia i w niezwykłym maratonie nagrał materiał na cztery albumy, które nosiły potem podobne tytuły: Cookin’ , Relaxin’ with the Miles Davis Quintet short sleeve jersey, Workin’ with the Miles Davis Quintet i Steamin’ with the Miles Davis Quintet water waist pack.

Album Cookin’. how to tenderize meat without a mallet.. został wydany tuż przed rozwiązaniem wiosną 1957 r. tego Kwintetu, uważanego za najlepszą wtedy grupę nowoczesnego jazzu. Wszyscy muzycy osiągnęli już indywidualne sukcesy nawet przed jego powstaniem.

Kwintet dał jednak każdemu z tych muzyków okazję do dalszego rozwoju i wszyscy z niej skorzystali.

Miles Davis wyrósł jako wyróżniająca się jazzowa osobowość i rozpoczął jedyną w swoim rodzaju karierę muzyczną, która przekroczyła wszelkie bariery.

Garland nagrał albumy, które odniosły sukces, w trio (np. A Garland of Red).

Coltrane nagrał swój solowy album na początku 1957 r. i rozpoczął wspaniałą solową karierę.

Chambers i Jones zaczęli współpracować ze sobą i z innymi jako znakomita sekcja rytmiczna.

Album został tak nazwany na życzenie Milesa Davisa, który powiedział After all, that’s what we did – came in and cooked. (pol. Ostatecznie, to jest to, co zrobiliśmy – przyszliśmy i ugotowaliśmy).

oraz inne wznowienia z remasteringiem dokonanym przez samego Rudy’ego Van Geldera.

Joel Eriksson

Peter Joel Kristoffer Eriksson (født 16. september 1984 i Fässberg, Mölndal i Västra Götaland), er en svensk skøyteløper som representerte hjemlandet under Vinter-OL 2010 i Vancouver.

Oppdatert pr 20. mai 2011

Olympiske leker (Vinter) deltatt i ett OL ved 2 konkurranser.

Allround-VM på skøyter deltatt 3 ganger.

Sprint-VM på skøyter deltatt 4 ganger.

Enkeltdistanse-VM på skøyter deltatt i 3 VM ved 4 konkurranser.

EM på skøyter deltatt i 5 EM.

Junior-VM på skøyter deltatt i 3 VM ved 4 konkurranser.

Oppdatert etter sesongen 2010/11.

1971: H. Börjes • 1972: J. Granath • 1973: J. Granath • 1974: O. Granath • 1975: O. Granath • 1976: M. Wallberg • 1977: O. Granath • 1978: J. Granath • 1979: J. Granath • 1980: J.-Å. Carlberg • 1981: J.-Å straw for water bottle. Carlberg • 1982: J.-Å. Carlberg • 1983: G best metal water bottle. Johansson • 1984: J.-Å. Carlberg • 1985: G. Johansson • 1986: G. Johansson • 1987: H. Magnusson • 1988: G. Johansson • 1989: B. Forslund • 1990: B. König • 1991: B. Forslund • 1992: J. Tronêt&nbsp

Real Madrid Club de Fútbol Away JESE 20 Jerseys

Real Madrid Club de Fútbol Away JESE 20 Jerseys



;• 1993: H. Markström • 1994: M. Enfeldt • 1995: M. Enfeldt • 1996: M. Enfeldt • 1997: M. Enfeldt • 1998: M. Enfeldt • 1999: M. Jansson • 2000: M. Enfeldt • 2001: M. Enfeldt • 2002: E. Zachrisson • 2003: J. Röjler • 2004: E. Zachrisson • 2005: S. Falk • 2006: J. Eriksson • 2007: J. Eriksson • 2008: S. Hassel • 2009: J. Eriksson • 2010: J. Röjler • 2011: J. Eriksson • 2012: J. Röjler • 2013: J. Röjler • 2014: D. Andersson • 2015: D. Andersson • 2016: D. Andersson • 2017: TBA

Deir Mimas

Deir Mimas (also spelled Deirmimas, Deir Mamas, and Deir Mimmas) (دير ميماس) is a town 88 km south of Beirut in Lebanon. Named in honor of Saint Mamas, the town overlooks the Litani River and the medieval Beaufort Castle to the west and the snow-capped summits of Mount Hermon to the east.

In 1852, Edward Robinson noted the village from Beaufort Castle.

In 1875 Victor Guérin visited; the population ascribed to Deir Mimas by Guerin was 1,000. With the exception of twenty Protestants, he says, they were all “Schismatic Greeks”.

In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund’s Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described it as: “A village, built of stone, containing about 300 Christians, surrounded by large groves of olives, and gardens of figs, pomegranates, and vineyards bike water bottle, with arable land to the east. There is a modern church in the village, which is well supplied with water from springs.”

In addition to the cultivation of grapes, and figs water proof phone, Deir Mimas continues to be a major producer of olives and olive oil. It is home to around 150000 olive trees some of which date back hundreds of years. Three olive oil press facilities are available providing their services to olive farmers from Deirmimas and surrounding villages. Olive oil produced in Deirmimas is known to be as one of the best in Lebanon. Olive Oil produced in Deirmimas under the name “Mariams Gold” ranked fourth among the products of more than 80 of the largest producing companies of the world in a contest organised by the German “Biofach 2012″ exhibition at Nuremberg , Germany.[citation needed]

The inhabitants of Deir Mimas are Lebanese and followers of the Eastern Orthodox, Presbyterian and Greek Catholic churches. Latin Church followers exist in the village in addition to a Maronite minority.

One of the most known individuals from Deir Mimas is Dr. George Fawaz, a renowned former pharmacologist at the American University of Beirut. One of the priests that served most of his entire life is buried at the back of the church in Mar Mama. His name was the servant of God Gerges Chammas. The location is behind the church to the east side. He was a great servant and devoted his life to serve Christ and his followers glass water bottle with rubber cover.[citation needed]

According to E. H. Palmer the name means: “the convent of Mimâs”.

Deir is derivative from the Semitic, meaning house or convent. Mimas refers to Saint Mamas, the third century shepherd who preached Christianity and had a lion as a protector. Saint Mamas became martyr after his examination in the persecutions of Aurelian. In the Middle Ages, a convent was built in honor of Saint Mamas on top of a hill surrounded by olive groves. A village grew around the convent, and it was eventually named in honor of the Convent of Saint Mamas.

In addition to Christmas and Easter, the town celebrates the feast of Saint Mamas on September 15. Grand festivities are organized each year to honor the town’s patron saint. Celebrations take place where masses are held at the ”Deir” the Convent situated on a hill and facing the mountain and the litani river. Villagers meet, talk and gather over a nice array of food that many housewives have prepared.[citation needed]

Deirmimas is considered as the closest Lebanese Christion village to the Holy land. It is 70km far from Nazareth and 170km far from Jerusalem. The village has seven different churches serving the population:[citation needed]

Berthe de Sulzbach

Berthe de Sulzbach (née vers 1100 au château (de) de Sulzbach, morte vers 1160 à Constantinople) est de 1146 à sa mort l’épouse de l’empereur byzantin Manuel Ier Comnène.

Berthe est la fille de Bérenger Ier de Sulzbach (de) et d’Adélaïde de Wolfratshausen. Parmi ses frères et sœurs, il y a Gertrude (de) qui sera la seconde épouse de l’empereur germanique Conrad III, et Embricho, évêque de Wurtzbourg.

En 1142, Berthe est adoptée par Conrad III. Bertha vient à Constantinople la même année et épouse en 1146 sous le nom d’Irène l’empereur byzantin Manuel Ier Comnène. Son mariage avec l’empereur Manuel a des raisons politiques, il est initié par leurs pères Jean II Comnène et Conrad III. L’objectif est de sceller l’alliance entre Manuel et Conrad III contre le Normand Roger II de Sicile. À cause de ses origines venant des Francs et catholique, les prêtres byzantins de la cour expriment une forte réserve. Elle est ainsi cantonnée avant son mariage dans le quartier des femmes. Manuel construit pour elle un palais appelé “Polytimos” et lui donne les vêtements et l’entourage appropriés à son rang d’impératrice.

De ce mariage naissent deux enfants : Marie Comnène (1152-1182) qui épousera Rénier de Montferrat (1162-1183), et Anne Comnène (1154-1158).

Berthe intervient en faveur de Henri Bérenger, un fils de Conrad III, pour le fiancer avec une nièce de Manuel. Elle montre des talents diplomatiques entre son époux et l’empereur germanique, notamment lors d’une visite à la cour byzantine en 1148. On conserve comme écrits de sa main des poèmes et un discours.

L’année de son décès est incertaine, on trouve selon les sources la date de 1158 insulated thermos, fin 1159 ou 1160. Lorsqu’elle meurt, Manuel Ier Comnène mène une campagne militaire en Anatolie. Berthe est enterrée au monastère du Pantocrator, sa tombe est détruite après la conquête de Constantinople par les Ottomans lors de la conversion de l’église en mosquée.

La mémoire de Berthe et de son rang dans la société ont une place particulière au sein de la Maison de Sulzbach (de). La chronique de Kastl raconte l’histoire d’un prétendu retour de Berthe de Constantinople, sa mort et son enterrement à Kastl. Au XVIIe siècle, Johannes Braun, l’auteur de la chronique de Nordgau (de), un margraviat de Bavière nivia football socks, affirme avoir vu sa tombe dans la crypte des Sulzbach, à l’abbaye de Kastl (de). Ce retour et cet enterrement sont complètement faux.